Symbiosis is the close relationship between two different organisms of different species that may either beneficial or detrimental. For example a hookworm has a relationship with its host in which the host has detrimental effects while the hookworm receives the benefits of the relationship
Parasitism is a symbiotic relationship between two organisms in which one species of animal benefits from the other while the other species of animal.
Commensalism is a symbiotic relationship when one organism benefits but the other organism isn't affected in anyway.
Mutualism is a symbiotic relationship where both organisms of different species receive the benefits of the relationships.
Examples in the Grasslands
COMMENSALISM: An example of commensalism in the grasslands is when the cattle graze the grass, the insects disturb insects that live inside the grass. The cattle egrets eat the disturbed insects and they benefit from this action, but the cattle is not affected by this. Another example is when large nurse plants give protection to seedlings that are young. The young seedlings grow under the leaves, which offer protection from grazing, frost stress in the winter, and heat stress in the summer. Why is it important? The relationships between the organisms that were listed were very important because when one side is not in the equation then problems will arise. For instance if the cattle did not disturb the insects in the grass, then the cattle egrets would not have the food rations.
MUTUALISM: An example of mutualism in the grasslands happens between herbivores and the bacteria in their stomach. Since the grasslands is a land full of grass and is a cellulose-rich area, the bacteria inside of the herbivores help them break it down for them to use it as nutrients. Furthermore, the African buffalo and ox pecker also share mutualism. The ox pecker picks parasites, like ticks, off of the buffalo. Why is it important? The mutualistic relationship between the organisms in grasslands are arguably life essential to the organisms affected. In the relationship between the herbivores and the bacteria, without one or another both organisms would result in a horrible state. For instance if the herbivores did not have the bacteria, they wouldn't be able to break down the grass which may result in them to eat other forms of food or starve.
PARASITISM: In the grasslands, one example of parasitism is the brown-headed cowbird and other birds in the region. The brown-headed cowbird lays its own eggs inside of nests of other birds and lets the other birds raise their birds for them. This lets the brown-headed cowbird extend their genealogy while the other bird has the burden of taking care of a bird. Moreover, another instance of parasitism is between rattle and other grasses. Rattle lives on the roots of grasses. I t gains energy by feeding on the nutrients and water through the roots. But people declared rattle to be only hemiparasitic because this also reduces competition by allowing other grasses to grow in grasslands. Why is it important? In the grasslands, the parasitism relationships are important for a variety of reasons. Firstly, in the case of the brown-headed cowbird, this allows them to continue their family line, at the cost that the other species of bird suffer. For rattle, this is important because the rattle reduces the overgrowth of some plants and competition.
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